Definition

Polymyositis is a rare disease of the muscles. It makes muscles inflamed or swollen. It can lead to severe movement problems. Treatment can help.

Front Muscles of Trunk
Trunk Core Muscles
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Causes

Changes in genes may be the cause. The altered genes change how your immune system responds to the environment. It leads to attack of muscles by the immune system.

Risk Factors

Polymyositis is more common in:

  • Women
  • People who are 30 to 50 years old

Your risk is higher if people in your family have lupus .

Symptoms

The muscles near the trunk of the body are affected more often. You may have:

  • Poor muscle strength in the hips, neck, and shoulders
  • Muscle pain that gets worse over time
  • Low energy
  • Great effort needed to climb stairs
  • Trouble rising from a chair
  • Problems reaching above your head
  • Having a dry cough that won’t go away
  • A hard time when you swallow

Polymyositis can also lead to:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.

The following tests may be done to confirm muscle disease:

  • Blood tests—to look for signs of muscle breakdown
  • Muscle biopsy —to look for inflammation or damage
  • Electromyogram (EMG)—test electrical activity of the muscle
  • MRI —can show large areas of inflammation

Treatment

The disease starts slowly and gets worse over time. There is no cure. The muscles will get weaker and more painful without treatment.

Medical care can help with your strength and movement. Some treatment options include:

Medication

Medicine will depend on your specific needs. Options include:

  • Corticosteroids—to reduce inflammation
  • Other immunosuppressants—to decrease damage caused by immune system
  • IV immunoglobulin therapy —special proteins that may help the immune system work better

Support Therapy

Weakness of muscles can cause a loss of function. Therapy may help you work around these changes. Options include:

  • Physical therapy—stretching and strengthening to regain function as soon as possible
  • Occupational therapy and Dietitian—if chewing and swallowing has become difficult
  • Speech therapy—to address speech problems caused by weak neck muscles

Prevention

There are no ways to prevent polymyositis.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
  • Review Date: 05/2018 -
  • Update Date: 06/12/2018 -